Our Proposed Rewording for the
Ohio 12th grade proficiencies

 

OBE Original Wording
(prior to 3/3/2000 vote)

Our Proposed New Wording
(e-mailed to OBE 2/29/2000)

   
2. Analyze scientific conclusions as presented in popular and technical sources e.g., advertisements, newspaper articles, journals) including applying rules of evidence and logical argument, assessing trade-offs and/or formulating alternative solutions. 2. Analyze scientific conclusions as presented in technical sources (e.g., technical journals) including applying rules of evidence and logical argument, assessing trade-offs and/or formulating alternative solutions.
   
3. Examine milestones in the development of scientific theories, models, and technology in response to needs and new evidence by identifying and explaining the significance of the contributions of given men and women from different parts of the world. 3. Examine milestones in the development of scientific theories, models, and technology in response to needs and new evidence by identifying and explaining the significance of the contributions of men and women from different parts of the world. Identify faulty reasoning or conclusions which go beyond evidence and/or are not supported by data in a current scientific hypothesis or theory.

Example: Analyze hypotheses about characteristics of and extinction of dinosaurs. Identify the assumptions behind the hypothesis and show the weaknesses or strengths in the reasoning that led to the hypothesis.

   
9. Interpret astronomical observations within and beyond the solar system and relate these to our understanding of earth. 9. Interpret astronomical observations within and beyond the solar system and relate these to our understanding of earth. The origin of the universe remains one of the greatest questions in science. Studies of data regarding fossils, geologic tables, and cosmological information are encouraged. But proficiencies regarding origins are not mandated.
   
13. Describe changes in populations based on the development of species over time from simple to complex organisms and based on natural selection, natural variation, relationships between species and environmental conditions. 13. Describe observable changes in populations based on natural selection, natural variation, relationships between species and environmental conditions; with the subject of the origin of life and the origin of species being presented as theory and open to deductive analysis and criticism.
 

We recommend the addition of the following statements:

   
  15. Students should learn to distinguish between science and other forms of knowledge, such as philosophy or religion. Introduces falsifiability; learning to distinguish between scientific information (data), scientific explanations (theories, etc.), and the scientific method; and the applications and limits of science and the inductive and deductive reasoning processes that underlie science.
   
  16. Compare geologic evidence from different areas. Example: Locate the same rock layer in two road cuts; give fossil and other evidence that the layer is the same in both exposures. Compare sedimentary deposits from other areas. Are all layers of the geologic column present? If not, which ones are missing? Are the layers of the geologic column always found in the expected sequence?
   
  17. Learn about falsification. Example: What would we accept as proof that the theory that all cars are black is wrong? Answers: One car of any color but black and only one time. No matter how much evidence seems to support a theory, it only takes one proof that it is false to show it to be false.
   
  18. The different methods of evaluating fossils, radioactive decay, and the formation of rock sequences and how they are used to estimate the time rocks were formed. Example: Investigate how rocks and fossils are dated. Identify assumptions used in radioactive decay methods of dating. Compare and evaluate data obtained on ages from such places as Mount St. Helens and the meteorite named Allende.
   
  19. No evidence or analysis of evidence that contradicts a current science theory will be censored.
   

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